apigenin benefits

Below you’ll find a compact list of apigenin benefits. Apigenin is a compound present in many fruits and vegetables. Due to its promising health-promoting properties, apigenin is gaining attention in the scientific community. From its anti-inflammatory properties to its role in cancer research, apigenin makes for a fascinating subject.

This article will cover what apigenin is, how it works in the body, and of course, a number of intriguing apigenin benefits.

Key Insights Table | Main Apigenin Benefits, Effects, and Sources

AspectKey Insights
DefinitionA flavonoid found in various fruits, vegetables, and herbs.
Major SourcesParsley, celery, chamomile tea, onions, oranges, thyme, oregano, basil.
Main Apigenin Benefits– Reduces inflammation.
– Prevents and treats cancer by inducing apoptosis and inhibiting angiogenesis.
– Improves cardiovascular health by reducing oxidative stress.
– Enhances sleep through GABAergic systems.
– Regulates hormones, especially testosterone.
– Positively impacts gut microbiota.
– Benefits skin and hair by reducing UV damage and inflammation.
Mechanisms of Action– Inhibits production of inflammatory markers (cytokines, prostaglandins).
– Modulates cell signaling pathways (PI3K/AKT, NF-κB, MAPK/ERK, STAT3) in cancer cells.
– Antioxidant properties protect blood vessels.
– Activates chloride ion channels for sleep regulation.
– Enhances StAR protein expression affecting testosterone biosynthesis.
– Interacts with gut bacteria, affecting growth and gene expression.
Dosage & ConsumptionNatural sources preferred due to better bioavailability. Daily intake varies, more research needed for precise recommendations.
Supplements vs. Natural SourcesSupplements may have stability and absorption issues. Liposomal apigenin could be a more effective supplement option due to enhanced stability and absorption. Natural dietary sources are more effective.
This table provides a detailed overview of apigenin, highlighting specific apigenin benefits, apigenin’s mechanisms of action in the body, plus the best dietary and supplemental sources of apigenin.

Section 1: The Basics of Apigenin

What Exactly is Apigenin?

Apigenin is a member of the flavonoid family, compounds celebrated for their unique health benefits. Specifically, apigenin is a colorless crystalline substance found in a variety of plant sources.

Its Chemical Identity

Scientifically, apigenin is known as 4′,5,7-trihydroxyflavone. This identity is crucial because it defines its unique properties, such as its antioxidant capabilities. The structure, particularly the three hydroxyl groups, plays a key role in its biological activities.

Apigenin’s Journey in the Human Body

Once ingested, apigenin gets absorbed into your bloodstream, predominantly through the intestines. It then embarks on a complex journey, interacting with various cellular processes in the body. However, it’s important to note that apigenin doesn’t linger for long; the liver efficiently metabolizes it, so it has a relatively brief half-life.

We’ve just begun to unpack the science behind apigenin. The rest of the article will guide you through a number of apigenin benefits.

Section 2: Apigenin Benefits

Anti-inflammatory Properties

  • Inhibition of Inflammatory Markers: Apigenin is effective in reducing inflammation. It achieves this by inhibiting the production of inflammatory markers like cytokines and prostaglandins, which are crucial in various inflammatory conditions.
  • Neuroprotective Action: A study highlighted apigenin’s ability to protect neurites and cell viability in a model of Alzheimer’s disease. It promotes a down-regulation of cytokine and nitric oxide release in inflammatory cells. [source]

Role in Cancer Prevention and Treatment

  • Modulation of Cell Signaling Pathways: Apigenin has gained attention for its potential in cancer prevention and treatment. It modulates various cell signaling pathways, including tumor suppressor genes, angiogenesis, apoptosis, and the cell cycle. This modulation helps in the inhibition of cancer cell growth and spread.
  • Potential in Various Cancer Types: The compound has shown promise in reducing the resistance against cancer therapy and is considered for its role in different types of cancer through the modulation of cell signaling pathways like PI3K/AKT, NF-κB, MAPK/ERK, and STAT3. [source]

Impact on Cardiovascular Health

  • Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Functions: Apigenin’s antioxidant properties are crucial in protecting blood vessels from oxidative stress-related damage. Its anti-inflammatory functions also play a significant role in preventing cardiovascular diseases.
  • Improvement in Hypertension and Cardiac Hypertrophy: A study demonstrated that apigenin improves hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy by modulating NADPH oxidase-dependent reactive oxygen species generation and inflammation in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus. [source]

Impact on Sleep

  • Hypnotic Effects: Apigenin shows promise in enhancing sleep. It prolongs sleep time induced by pentobarbital, a behavior similar to muscimol, a GABA(A) receptors agonist. Apigenin also synergizes with muscimol to potentiate sleep onset and enhance sleep time induced by pentobarbital, suggesting its role in sleep regulation through chloride ion channel activation. [source]

Impact on Hormones

  • Testosterone Biosynthesis in Aging: Apigenin impacts hormone regulation, specifically testosterone biosynthesis. In aging mouse Leydig cells, it enhances steroidogenesis and steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein expression, a crucial factor in testosterone biosynthesis. This suggests a potential application of apigenin to improve the steroidogenic sensitivity of aging Leydig cells. [source]

Impact on Gut Health

  • Interaction with Gut Microbiota: Apigenin reaches the colon intact and interacts with the human gut microbiota. It affects the growth and gene expression of certain gut bacteria strains like Enterococcus caccae, demonstrating its influence on gut health. In a community setting, apigenin enhanced the genus Enterococcus, indicating its selective impact on gut microbiota composition. [source]

Impact on Skin and Hair

  • Dermatological Applications: Apigenin has shown beneficial effects in preclinical studies on dermatological conditions like UV-induced skin damage, vitiligo, dermatitis, wounds, skin aging, and some types of skin cancer. It acts mainly via anti-inflammatory mechanisms and antioxidant properties, suggesting its potential as a future candidate in dermatological disorders. [source]

Section 3: Apigenin in Diet and Supplements

Natural Sources of Apigenin

  • Common Sources: Apigenin is abundantly found in parsley, celery, celeriac, and chamomile tea. These foods are among the most common sources of apigenin in the diet. [source]
  • Presence in Various Foods: Besides the common sources, apigenin is present in significant amounts in onions, oranges, herbs like thyme, oregano, basil, and certain teas like chamomile tea. [source] [source]

Effectiveness of Supplements Versus Natural Sources

  • Bioavailability in Diet: Apigenin obtained through dietary sources is considered sufficiently bioavailable. For general health needs, multiple daily servings of fruits and vegetables can provide adequate amounts of apigenin, typically less than 5 mg/day. [source]
  • Stability Issues in Supplements: In contrast, isolated apigenin, as found in supplements, is often unstable and may not be absorbed effectively by the body. Without specific alterations to enhance its stability and bioavailability, oral supplementation may not reach the intended dose effectively. [source]
  • Varying Dosage Recommendations: The ideal daily intake of apigenin is a subject of debate. While one study suggests 23 milligrams of flavonoids per day as a healthy dosage, others indicate that actual daily intake ranges from 0.69 to three milligrams per day. [source]
  • Effects of Higher Doses: Higher doses of apigenin have been associated with anti-anxiety and sedative effects, and are used in increasing testosterone levels. However, more research is recommended on the effects of increased doses. [source]

Quick Recap: Apigenin Benefits and Sources

  • Wide-Ranging Health Benefits: Apigenin offers a spectrum of health advantages, including anti-inflammatory, anticancer, cardiovascular, and neuroprotective effects.
  • Natural Sources Are Key: Foods like parsley, celery, and chamomile tea are rich in apigenin and ensure bioavailability.
  • Supplement Stability Concerns: Supplements containing apigenin may face stability and absorption issues, making natural sources preferable.
  • Varied Dosage Recommendations: Daily intake suggestions for apigenin differ widely, with more research needed for definitive guidance.
  • Potential for Future Health Applications: Apigenin’s diverse benefits highlight its potential in advancing health and wellness strategies.

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